broadwinged hawks

Heroes of Hawk Mountain: Warner Berthoff

Warner witnessed Hawk Mountain’s Miracle Day on September 14, 1978, when counters tallied a record 21,448 broad-winged hawks. Here he proudly displays his “I was here” t-shirt.

Warner witnessed Hawk Mountain’s Miracle Day on September 14, 1978, when counters tallied a record 21,448 broad-winged hawks. Here he proudly displays his “I was here” t-shirt.

Some people simply embody the spirit of Hawk Mountain, and such was the case with Warner Berthoff. Warner first visited the Sanctuary in the 1960’s, and returned, year after year, to soak in the view from North Lookout, chat with his Mountain friends, and enjoy the flight, which with any luck included good kettles of broadwings.

It was in the late 60’s that he met “Broadwing Charlie” Gant, who would become a life-long friend. “In 45 minutes, my dad learned more about broadwings than he could have read in a year of book learning,” laughs his daughter Rachel. The two hit it off and, going forward, always met at Hawk Mountain each September.

Dr. Laurie Goodrich, who coordinates the count and spends much time at the lookouts, recalls that Warner would coordinate by phone to make sure the two arrived on the same day, which may have been the only time they saw one another all year long.

“Warner would always arrive first and ask, 'where is he?' and 'did anybody see him yet?'” Laurie laughs. “Then all of a sudden Charlie would show up, and all would be right in the world. They’d settle in on the north side under the trees and talk non-stop, even when the birds started to move. They’d look up at the birds, and then go back to talking,” she says.

And so the years passed, with Warner making the 340-mile ride to Hawk Mountain to climb the North Lookout. He made his last hike in 2016 at age 89 with his son and daughter at his side.


“He easily could have watched broadwings from Massachusetts, but he always came back here,” says Laurie, who looked forward to his annual arrival as much as anyone.

Warner died on August 28, 2018, but he lived a full and beautiful life. He was a professor emeritus at Harvard University, where he taught English and American literature for more than 20 years. He was a brilliant thinker and sought-after academic whose visiting professorships took him from Sicily to Berkeley to Poland and beyond. He enjoyed his friends and family, along with many other hobbies and interests. Hawk-watching was but a small slice of his life, but it’s the one we knew and loved.

Like others, Warner demonstrates that Hawk Mountain isn’t just a place on a map, but a community of friends brought together by a love for this place, the birds overhead, and the work we do. He reminds us that Hawk Mountain is truly a sanctuary, not just for wildlife, but also for the soul.

We thank Warner for sharing more than 50 years of friendship, and his family for sharing him.

Searching for Two Secretive Forest-Raptors

By Lauren Sarnese, Goshawk and Broadwing Project Field Assistant 2018
Hawk Mountain Sanctuary

Working on the Pennsylvania Goshawk and Broad-winged Hawk projects has given me a whole new set of experiences and has opened my eyes to a different sector of field work. My degree is in biology with a personal focus in entomology from East Stroudsburg University (Spring 2016). Coming into this, I had no experience with raptors, but I did come with enthusiasm, passion, and a general love for ecology.

It began with sifting through gear lent to me by Hawk Mountain—a plethora of technical resources mixed with lists of places and names I had never heard before. Dr. Laurie Goodrich and Rebecca McCabe helped prepare us for the upcoming field season with a training session at the Sanctuary. I took notes and wrote down names and dates in preparation to make calls and schedule site visits for the upcoming weeks. As the end of March approached, I was eager to get out in the field and start searching for these raptors.  

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The field season began with nest-searching for northern goshawks. Being inexperienced, I was pointing out squirrels’ nests, insignificant stick clusters, and nests that I now know would crumble under the weight of a goshawk. Over time, I developed an eye for large nests, large birds, and an ear for raptors (and maybe a few passerines). The work always gave me more energy than it took from me, which is how I classify a passion. It became increasingly more exciting with each new thing I saw; I became hyper-focused when looking for nests and listening for raptors.

The first day conducting goshawk broadcast surveys was wonderful and challenging! As to be expected for the northern part of the Pocono Mountains, the terrain was rough. The surveys were interesting in a way that they challenged you to pay attention to all visual and aural details of your surroundings in a fixed period of time. The anticipation was much like fishing: you don’t know if you’ll catch anything, but if you do, it’s a stellar day! This mindset persisted and carried us through the rough terrain, and there was only a minor mishap of accidentally spraying my former professor with bear spray.

However, at the fourth broadcast point (a total of 19 were done at each historical site), we got a response. That initial callback gave us all an electric amount of energy; this was what being in the field was about! We continued forward in hopes of crossing paths with this elusive creature that I had yet to see. We played more calls but those few responses were all we were fortunate enough to hear that day. The excitement was still overflowing as we finished the survey and walked to the car anxious to call Laurie. She, being equally as excited, immediately reached out to Chelsea, a Penn State graduate student overseeing goshawk surveys statewide, who instructed us to schedule another day of searching at that site.


During the time of Goshawk broadcast surveys, I also began searching for broad- winged hawk nests in the Delaware State Forest. This was definitely a learning curve for me. Spotting a broad-winged hawk female on the nest was more difficult than I anticipated. She would hunker down only looking at me with one eye. If you were lucky, her tail might have been sticking out of the nest too. The broad-winged hawks were equally as exciting and easier to find than the goshawks. I found myself attempting to anticipate their movements, so I could track them back to their nests in hopes of finding a female incubating.  

 Working on both projects, I gained so many unique skills that will carry me through my career as a biologist. I developed relationships with foresters, private landowners, and, of course, the wonderful team at Hawk Mountain. I am so grateful to have had the opportunity to work with such a fantastic organization and team. I look forward to seeing all of the ecological advancements they make in the future.

Lauren with a banded red-tailed hawk. 

Lauren with a banded red-tailed hawk. 

Click to learn more about Hawk Mountain's PA Goshawk Project and Broad-winged Hawk Project, and how you can support these efforts

Red-Letter Days

Broadwing kettle photos by Bill Moses

Broadwing kettle photos by Bill Moses

By David Barber, Research Biologist
Hawk Mountain Sanctuary

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Maurice Broun, the Sanctuary's first curator, described "red-letter days" as "those days when hawks flood the Sanctuary skyways, as in fulfillment of a hawk-lover's hopes and dreams."  And the great thing about red-letter days is that they are often unexpected.  Such is the case with the peak of our broad-winged hawk flight this year.  Sunday, September 17th had an inauspicious start, the ridge was completely socked in with low clouds and the front of the lookout was barely visible.  It was the type of day where you wonder if the clouds will ever lift or will you sit in the clouds all day.  It was a great chance to catch up with old friends and make new ones as there wasn't much to see except for the fog.

Finally, around 11:15 the clouds started to break up and we could see patches of blue.  I looked up at a patch of blue over the Kempton valley and could see broadwings coming out of a dark gray clouds appearing briefly before quickly disappearing into another dark cloud.   Two questions immediately popped into my head, how could they be up so high already and how many have we missed.   We all started scanning the blue and would occasionally see small groups of broadwings streaming though.  At the end of the hour counters tallied 157 broadwings.

Everyone's spirits were boosted and thoughts turned to the possibility that today could be the big flight of the season.  Was the previous day's count of 1,589 broadwings just the beginning?  We know that there had some big flights in New England earlier in the week, but those birds should have already passed through Pennsylvania. 

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Counts started to build over the next few hours, with 247 broadwings one hour, 527 the next, it was turning out to be a good day with just over 1,000 broadwings.  Around 3:15 someone called out "there's a big kettle over #4."  They weren't kidding,  I put my binoculars on #4 where birds were streaming in and started moving up, the kettle stretched from just over #4 to three to four glasses high.  The size of the kettle immediately brought me back to the time I visited the Veracruz  River of Raptors watchsite in Mexico, where daily counts can exceed 100,000 in a day. "They're streaming out the top" one of the counter yelled and soon the only sound you heard was the sound of clickers as the counters tried to keep up with "flood" of broadwings.  This clicking continued almost non-stop for the rest of the hour as new kettles formed and birds streamed past the lookout.  At the end of the hour we all looked at each other in awe having just witnessed 2,908 broadwings pass by in 45 minutes.    

Just as quickly the "flood" of broadwings slowed to a trickle and by day's end 4,019 broad-winged hawks were counted, a "red-letter day" that I, and I'm sure many others will remember for the rest of our lives.

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Going the Distance

By Adam Carter, Educator
Hawk Mountain Sanctuary

Chichicaxtle Veracruz Bird Observatory, where counts and school programs occur.

Chichicaxtle Veracruz Bird Observatory, where counts and school programs occur.

Hawk Mountain Sanctuary has been collaborating with the migration watch-site in Veracruz, Mexico, operated by Pronatura, a non-profit conservation organization, to monitor the seasonal migration of millions of raptors since the early 1990’s, known as the Veracruz River of Raptors.  This collaboration has also consisted of education endeavors such as producing an educational manual and lesson plan, and other translated materials that could be used for education in Veracruz.  In 2017, the Hawk Mountain Education Department looks to collaborate in a new way, through Distance Education, in order to enhance its efforts to accomplish its mission of conserving birds or prey globally. 

This coming September, I will have the opportunity to make my first trip to Veracruz.  In addition to witnessing the southbound journey of thousands of hawks, I will also get to work with the Pronatura staff working on the ground to conserve and protect this world renowned migration.  We will be working together to create Distance Education opportunities within Mexico and Central America through transportable ‘raptor trunks’ filled with education materials to be used to reach classrooms in Mexico who otherwise may not have the opportunity to visit the site of Veracruz River of Raptors itself.  The trunk will be modeled after the existing trunks Hawk Mountain has recently created and begun shipping to different states across the U.S. The goal for the trunks in Veracruz will be to tailor them to the species, geography, and habitat unique to Mexico. 

Broad-winged Hawk curriculum developed by spring education intern Kirsten Fuller that will be translated into Spanish.

Broad-winged Hawk curriculum developed by spring education intern Kirsten Fuller that will be translated into Spanish.

One important aspect the Distance Education trunks will have in common between the two sites will be highlighting long-distance migrants like the Broad-winged Hawk.  This is a primary species for both Veracruz and Hawk Mountain and some individuals pass though both sites in the same north or south-bound journey.  This species will be highlighted to show the connection between the two sites and the importance of global conservation.  A Broad-winged Hawk curriculum has already been created in English and is available for class room use with the U.S. trunks.  The curriculum is currently being translated into Spanish for use in Mexico and in any Spanish-speaking classroom. 

Children in Veracruz playing our vulture migration game:

Children in Veracruz playing our vulture migration game:

The importance of raptor education and awareness of migration in Mexico could not be more important as it is one of the most concentrated flyways for birds of prey anywhere in the world.  More than 95% of the worlds populations of Broad-winged Hawk, Swainson’s Hawk, and Mississippi Kites pass through the narrow corridor monitored by Veracruz River of Raptors.  Each species concentrates in a narrow window of time, and daily flights can number more than 400,000 raptors.  Through continued collaboration and new efforts through Distance Education, we hope to inform and inspire the next generation of raptor conservationists, especially in Mexico.

To learn more and to help fund this important project, please CLICK HERE. As always, we are so thankful for your support and generosity. 

Bridging the Gap of Research and Education

By Kirsten Fuller, Education Intern
Hawk Mountain Sanctuary

Hawk Mountain Sanctuary is a dynamic organization that uses educational programming in conjunction with scientific research to promote raptor conservation.  As an education intern at the Sanctuary, I am proud to have completed a project that bridges the gap between these two distinct areas.  Using my credentials in biology and education, and with guidance and support from various scientists and educators, I created a curriculum for high school students, which highlights scientific data collected by the Broad-winged Hawk Project at Hawk Mountain Sanctuary.    

Kirsten with her Broadwing Curriculum, right before presenting it to the Hawk Mountain staff.

Kirsten with her Broadwing Curriculum, right before presenting it to the Hawk Mountain staff.

During my time as an intern at Hawk Mountain, I was also a student completing my bachelor's degree in education at Rowan University, and was enrolled in a writing intensive course structured around unit development.  This turned out to be incredibly helpful for creating the Broad-winged Hawk curriculum.  One topic heavily discussed in this course was the current reform in science education.  Modern science teachers are expected to use an inquiry approach to teaching in tandem with technology in order to inform students about the nature of how science is conducted and how scientific discoveries have developed over time.  A lot of the elements I learned from this course I was able to apply to the development of the curriculum.  This made sure the curriculum is applicable in high school classrooms using these modern teaching approaches. 

The curriculum is focused on a Broad-winged Hawk caught in New Ringgold, PA named Abbo.  She was fitted with a satellite-tracking device in July of 2014, and was released to make her migration south.  Broad-winged Hawks are known for making long migrations, on average between 8,000 and 10,000 km, from their breeding grounds in Eastern forests to wintering grounds in South America.  Abbo migrated from her nesting site in Pennsylvania all the way to Brazil, and then back to Pennsylvania, where she chose a nest that was less than 30 km from her nest the year before.  Points accumulated by satellites were collected in a database and then easily displayed on Google Earth Pro for visualization.  This is the technology that students and teachers will use to complete activities in the curriculum.

Kirsten's Broad-winged Hawk Curriculum for teachers, along with accompanying worksheets. 

Kirsten's Broad-winged Hawk Curriculum for teachers, along with accompanying worksheets. 

In the curriculum, students explore the complete ecological profile of Abbo, the Broad-winged Hawk.  Through a series of questions and guided instructions, students analyze and compare the ecology of the nesting grounds in Pennsylvania and the wintering grounds in Brazil, explore the migratory route taken by Abbo, and think critically about the conservation and preservation issues involved with this long-distance migrant.  Content in the curriculum is applicable to many national and Pennsylvania State Standards for high school science education. 

One aspect of the curriculum that I found really important was informing students of the way ecological research is conducted.  I wanted students to understand how data about a species can be collected, and then how that data can be used to determine factors about that population.  This is how we can begin to bridge the gap between research and education;  by incorporating real-life scientific studies into traditional high school curricula, educators are able to hopefully inspire the next generation of biologists.  I plan on using these techniques when I am a student teacher next fall. 

Upon accepting the education intern position at Hawk Mountain, I was nervous about the challenges that I would encounter in my attempt to translate Broadwing migration data into an activity that is relevant in high school science classrooms.  I am very excited to see it successfully implemented in the near future.

I don’t have a photo with all of the people who helped me complete this project, however seen with me to the left are Wouter Vansteelant and Zoey Greenberg, who both made my experience at Hawk Mountain fun and memorable. I am so thankful for the opportunity to spend time working for Hawk Mountain, and for all of the encouraging and knowledgeable people that helped me complete this project. 

* This curricula with another on the black vulture was created with support from the Pennsylvania Wild Resources Conservation Program and other donors.