education intern

Informally Influential

By Zoey Greenberg, Science Outreach Coordinator
Hawk Mountain Sanctuary

Zoey presenting during the PAMLE 2018 Conference

Zoey presenting during the PAMLE 2018 Conference

This October, HMS Director of Education Erin Brown and I presented at the 2nd annual conference for PAMLE, the Pennsylvania Association for Middle Level Education. The keynote speaker, Dave F. Brown, co-author of the book What Every Middle-School Teacher Should Know, started the day off with a potent analysis of how the average preteen views the world. Incorporating neuroscience, he made a compelling case for increased compassion towards adolescents and the importance of cultivating supportive learning environments in middle school classrooms.

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Dr. Brown also highlighted the importance of identity development, reminding us that middle school students are discovering who they want to be and what they value. This point stuck with me for the remainder of the day. I tried to remember what it felt like to be a seventh grader and found myself in agreement: the first memories that resurfaced were of social belonging, and attempts to carve space for myself in an ocean of others.

Towards the end of my own presentation at the conference, I received a comment from a teacher that drove my contemplations deeper. He told me he has many female science students who begin with enthusiasm but almost always fade away from science because they claim it’s associated with boys and technology. This got me thinking about ways in which informal education has a role in the presentation of science, not just as a career, but as an exploration of identity.

Many of us would agree that science is largely defined by the scientific process, which includes inquisition and curiosity. Some, including myself, would say that passion is often an important catalyst for scientific discovery. Schools work hard to prepare students for their future, as they should. However, teachers face a plethora of challenges and deadlines that can sometimes limit their creative methodology when introducing an entire field of study. Science and technology have quickly become buzz words of the future; however, I would argue that the definition of science in this context is related heavily to human progress and less to other important avenues such as environmental protection or the classically termed “dying breeds” of natural history and zoology.

Zoey working with students from the Swain School in Allentown, PA on the newly developed HMS Black Vulture curriculum.

Zoey working with students from the Swain School in Allentown, PA on the newly developed HMS Black Vulture curriculum.

It is within this gap that I feel that Hawk Mountain plays a huge role. We create educational materials for the classroom that give teachers options for how to design their own framework of science. We align these lesson plans with standards, include the most up-to-date raptor science, and offer training to teachers whenever possible. In this way, I believe that we are paving a beautiful path towards an inclusive definition of the word “science” that can be offered to young students who may simply identify as lovers of wildlife but aren’t sure how to weave this piece of themselves into their academics.     

If Hawk Mountain staff had come into my 7th grade classroom and told me that there were real live adults that studied birds of prey for a living, my jaw would have hit the floor. Part of the reason I feel such pride in this organization is because we expose the young and the old to a breathtaking dimension of the natural world, and we put effort into reaching those that cannot make it to our site. I regretfully shied away from science in middle school, and I want to acknowledge the role that informal education can have in welcoming adolescents to a rewarding and impactful field. Raptors provide an intriguing route into the realm of science and Hawk Mountain is well equipped to assist teachers on the road to creative instruction. 

A vulture roost in Reading, PA, that Zoey observed during her time as an HMS conservation science trainee.

A vulture roost in Reading, PA, that Zoey observed during her time as an HMS conservation science trainee.

Erin and I were the only non-formal presenters at this conference, and I was heartened to see that our presence was valued. I have immense respect for the consideration that attendees at this year’s PAMLE conference showed for their student’s well being, by assessing ways to enhance how we, as a community invested in youth, can encourage student growth. Our world is brimming with amazing teachers, and I feel optimistic that through partnership between informal and formal educators, innovative education has no limits. Trust me, even a turkey vulture roost can become a world of discovery with the right attitude and freedom to set the stage.

Home Among the Hills

By Karissa Elser, Education Intern
Hawk Mountain Sanctuary

Karissa at South Lookout as a child.

Karissa at South Lookout as a child.

Hiking up to North Lookout on my first day, as a summer education intern, wasn’t the first time I made that journey. It probably wasn’t even the 10th time. I have been able to make the journey countless times because I am lucky enough to call Hawk Mountain Sanctuary my backyard. Since I live in the small town of New Ringgold that you can see from North Lookout, Hawk Mountain is no stranger to me.

Yet, this summer, I got to make the drive up Hawk Mountain Road everyday to experience this place from a whole new perspective. Being the “local” intern this summer, I was already aware of the River of Rocks bolder fields and the incredible views from the lookouts. However, I wasn’t aware of the world-class research that goes on at Hawk Mountain Sanctuary. From the Farmland Raptor Project to working globally with other scientists to butterfly migration to educating kids, this special place that I have grown up going to my whole life is the leader in all the techniques and practices I have been studying while at West Virginia University.

Karissa holding a recently tagged American kestrel chick.

Karissa holding a recently tagged American kestrel chick.

Even though I was technically an education intern, I was always being invited to help tag black vultures or band American kestrels with the conservation scientist and trainees. There are some things that can’t be taught in a classroom, and getting to work along biologists at Hawk Mountain, such as J.F. Therrien, Laurie Goodrich, and David Barber, were some of those experiences. Since all the biologists and researchers at the Sanctuary have expertise in different fields of study, I felt lucky to have been able to have conversations with each of them about what they are accomplishing.

Karissa assisting a young visitor during a Wee One’s program.

Karissa assisting a young visitor during a Wee One’s program.

As an education intern, I spent most of my time working on the top of the mountain, leading excursions with groups of all ages and from all different backgrounds. Being able to share your knowledge and passion for conservation with children and adults, who may live in cities or might not know about the power of preservation of raptors, other wildlife, and ecosystems found in the Appalachian area, is the greatest feeling. You can learn a lot from mistakes you make. Watching the way that educators Erin Brown, Rachel Taras, Andrea Ambrose, and Jamie Dawson work with kids and through kids taught me about how I aspire to be as an educator.

Hawk Mountain has taught me how to work with a community of scientists and educators from various backgrounds. This notable place has provided me with an immense amount of hands-on research and fieldwork, and it reminds me every day why I study and strive to be a better scientist and educator. I have been so fortunate to work at a place that my 10-year-old self would visit on those fall days to watch the migrating birds with my school group. I never would have anticipated that I would have a chance to work at a place that I have always considered my home among the hills.

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Night Wanderers

By Zoe Bonerbo, Conservation Education Intern
Hawk Mountain Sanctuary

Very few people get to experience the Mountain at night. Trekking through the rocky understory in near pitch black was one of the coolest experiences I had while interning at Hawk Mountain. I had never before experienced the outdoors like I did that night.

I was born and raised in New York City—the furthest you could get from the rugged outdoors of the mountain. Nonetheless, I grew up loving the outdoors and was fascinated by animals and nature. When the opportunity arose to help organize an exclusive night hiking event, I jumped on it.

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The special guest we arranged to come speak before the hike was Charles Adams, author of Ghost Stories of Berks County. He spoke about the paranormal activity and “spirals of energy” that exist on Mountain. It was a fantastic way for me to learn about the history of the place that I called home for three months. That night, as stories were being divulged, it started drizzling right above our group of guests in the Laurelwood Niche, but nowhere else on the Mountain. On all four sides, you could see the lining of where the raincloud stopped and the civil twilight sky stretched beyond. Intriguingly, the rain only lasted as long as the stories did. Once the hike started, the clouds broke way to stars.

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At night, your senses come to life. Madi, a former Hawk Mountain education intern, challenged us to focus on our senses other than sight to help guide us on the walk up to North Lookout. While headlamps were allowed, guests only used them on a red light setting to help enhance night vision. However, since we were short one headlamp, I gave mine to one of the other hikers, and that’s when the adventure really began. The trails I thought I knew well became a puzzle with no light. I had never been challenged in this way before. Climbing and scrambling over rocks in the pitch black had my blood rushing. I found myself having to rely primarily on my sense of touch, feeling out the next step I would take, steadying myself on the rocks and trees beside me, and shifting my center of gravity to retain my balance.

The dusk view from the South Lookout, before they headed up to North Lookout..

The dusk view from the South Lookout, before they headed up to North Lookout..

The adrenaline of the hike was calmed when we reached the lookouts. With so little light pollution and our eyes well-adjusted to the darkness, we could see hundreds of stars dotting the sky. Everyone remained quiet, taking in the stillness of the night. We didn’t arrive back to the parking lot until past 11pm. By 9am the next morning, I was back up the Mountain leading a school group up to the Lookout.

A few weeks after the excitement, I noticed a quote sitting on my supervisor's desk, “And into the forest I go, to lose my mind and find my soul.” After spending three months on the Mountain, I don’t think John Muir couldn’t have said it any better.

Zoe hosting an outdoor portion of the July Wee Ones Walk for children ages 3-5. 

Zoe hosting an outdoor portion of the July Wee Ones Walk for children ages 3-5. 

 

 

Experiencing Your Moment

By Madi Wachsmuth, Spring 2018 Conservation Education Intern
Hawk Mountain Sanctuary

Stop and Look

When I first set foot on the mountain top as Hawk Mountain’s new spring education intern, I wanted to explore and embrace the land that would become my home for the coming months.  I arrived in the early morning on a cold February day, and at that time, the mountain was engulfed within a cloud. The world around me was shrouded in fog and shadows. As I wandered the trails around the sanctuary, I discovered statues and gardens that seemed to sleep under a blanket of snow in the grey pale morning. The amphitheatre, though empty, held a promise of spring days to come when it would be filled with visitors, eager to learn and see all that the mountain top has to offer.

I then decided to venture up towards the South Lookout. As I wandered up the path, I saw in the distance two posts at the trailhead.  The posts stood erect with a single word written on each, ‘Stop’ and ‘Look’. The words themselves halted me in my path. I was impressed with the precise power of those two simple words. I began to reflect on those columns, their wise mantra filling me with excitement, curiosity and wonder.  What laid in wait before me? What would I bear witness to on the misty mountain top? In that moment, I made a promise to myself that I would live and experience as much as I could in the coming months.

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I wrote ‘Stop and Look’ 3 months ago, at the start of my internship.  You can imagine my surprise and slight embarrassment when I realized that the posts in the story were actually just for a pedestrian road crossing. But in that moment those words held a higher meaning to me in both heart and mind.  When I see them, they still hold that same meaning that they did on that misty morning. To me, they will forever be moving words of guidance for the wandering traveler.

Now summer is just around the corner.  That cold breath of winter is a distant memory. This internship has truly gone by in a flash, and it was filled with plenty of twists and surprises.  In the beginning, I promised myself that I would take it one step at a time because all too often we think only in terms of destinations and deadlines, missing the experience of the journey.  In the blink of an eye the moment has past, and we are onto the next. This is why I believe that taking the opportunity to not only experience but document the finite and fleeting moments in life is so important.   

Some people may let landscapes inspire them to create art in forms of poetry, drawings, photography. One person's art can even become a muse for others seeking inspiration.  Others prefer to chronicle sightings or the changes that they notice in the world around them. Birders in particular keep detailed lists of sightings in hopes of tracking the seasonal movements of animals or the growth of plants.  I recently met a 3 year old with his very own life list and was very impressed to see him identifying songbirds at our bird feeders with his grandmother. This boy would grow up with an appreciation and understanding of the world around him that many of his peers would not.  These catalogs help us to see the beautifully intricate patterns that surround us as the years go by.

Whether you find yourself on the mountain top for reasons of inspiration, enrichment, or investigation, there’s bound to be something amazing for all to find. So bring your camera, or a notepad and try some new form of expression.  Let the world around inspire you, and experience your moment for what it is: one of a kind.

Madi with summer education interns Zoe and Karissa. 

Madi with summer education interns Zoe and Karissa. 

Best Laid Plans

By Andrea Ambrose, Education Intern
Hawk Mountain Sanctuary

Andrea scans the sky for migrants from North Lookout.

Andrea scans the sky for migrants from North Lookout.

I thought that I had it all figured out when I got my first taste of being a field biologist. I was in the last semester of attending my local community college, and I always knew that I wanted to work with wildlife in some capacity, but I just couldn't quite figure out what direction to take. A professor at my school was offering a three-week field ecology course on campus with local field trips. We learned identification of local birds to monitor species on campus, (incidentally this is how my passion for birding began, leading to a pursuit for many jobs focused on avian conservation), went for a weekend to a marine science consortium in Virginia to learn about marine research and marsh and wetland ecology, and visited a local arboretum to see work being done on invasive plant removal.

I was immediately hooked on the idea of wanting to learn more about what I could do to help monitor and protect our native wildlife, and the thought of working outdoors as a job while getting to study local species was exceedingly appealing. This was it! I'd found what I wanted to pursue as a career. Field biology seemed to be my perfect fit.

Fast forward 6 years to getting my bachelors degree in Biology with a focus in Ecology and Conservation. I got accepted to work at several summer internships with various organizations including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and an avian rehabilitation center, where I learned the ins and outs of conducting field research in various states. After graduating, I got my first field technician position in Missouri, working with a bird observatory doing grassland bird studies. Here is where things started to change for me, although it took me another year to figure it all out.

Andrea holds a female red-winged blackbird while working for the Missouri River Bird Observatory.

Andrea holds a female red-winged blackbird while working for the Missouri River Bird Observatory.

At the Missouri River Bird Observatory, there was a strong focus on educating the public by attending local events, where we would mist net and band birds and share with the visitors the importance of protecting local species. I was delighted by the reaction of not only the children, but the adults as well, when they got to see a bird in hand, up close and in person. The interest that these events sparked in people to learn about the natural world around them seemed to have great importance and value, and I was intrigued by the notion of conservation education as a possible career path.

I still loved most aspects of field research after 5 years of experience, but began to have doubts as to whether or not it was for me. I put this new interest on the back burner for another year as I worked a fairly intense field research job in South Texas. Upon returning home, I decided to see what I could do to possibly change my path yet again. Enter Hawk Mountain Sanctuary.

Andrea holds one of Hawk Mountain's education birds, a gray-morph eastern screech owl. 

Andrea holds one of Hawk Mountain's education birds, a gray-morph eastern screech owl. 

Living half an hour away from this world-renowned sanctuary was going to be the start of something amazing for me. I began as a raptor care volunteer and within a few months was accepted as an education intern, when I expressed my newly found interest in conservation education. I will never look back.

Andrea hosts a public Raptors Up Close program. 

Andrea hosts a public Raptors Up Close program. 

I've been fully integrated into my new passion in every way imaginable- from learning to work hands on with our education raptors, to presenting live raptor programs, to leading guided school groups up the mountain trails while providing interpretation about our local flora and fauna. I've presented Wee Ones programs to 3-5 year olds and learned how to channel my inner child again in order to teach this age group.  I've had several months’ worth of meeting some of the most amazing people I've ever met in my career, and although I will always be grateful for the experiences gained while working as a field biologist, and I can still use the knowledge that I gained in my future jobs, I know now that this is what my path is meant to be. I look forward to what the future holds and to teaching many more people, be it children or the general public, about the importance of conservation.

 

Hawk Mountain's Educational Outreach

By Kirsten Fuller, former education intern
Hawk Mountain Sanctuary

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Who was the most influential teacher in your life?  In my experience it was my high school English teacher, Mr. Kranz.  I was always captivated by his passion for theater and music, and his ability to provide me inspiration in a subject area I typically didn’t care for.  I am currently in the last stage of completing my teaching certificate, student teaching at a challenging high school, and it has been a bumpy ride.  The daily chaos and mayhem I have had to face as a naive student-teacher has proven to be taxing on my sanity at times.

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What has kept me motivated has been the moments in which I’ve had the opportunity to inspire students in the same way my English teacher in high school had inspired me. One of these moments occurred recently when  I was invited to teach a lesson on birds and what it means to be a bird scientist for a 7th grade class at Long Valley Middle School.  

I began the lesson providing an introduction as to what ornithology entails, and more specifically, what a raptor is.  I loved having a simple discussion with these bright 7th graders about the characteristics that make birds-of-prey different from songbirds.  Borrowing materials such as talons, skulls, and wings, from Hawk Mountain’s education department, majorly enhanced my lesson.  We were even able to look at Great Horned Owl and Red-tailed Hawk feathers under a digital microscope to observe the differences!

Feather comparisons

Feather comparisons

To inspire and engage my students, I wanted them to get the experience of what it means to actually be an ornithologist.  Using my own experience as a scientist conducting nest observations in real life, I designed an activity to allow students to conduct nest observations using a computer.    

Using YouTube, I found a video of a Great Horned Owl nest camera.  Then, I created a “Field Notes” worksheet for students to complete as they watched the video.  They took observations on the sights and sounds, they drew a picture, they described the habitat, and they took behavioral observations.  I was so excited about how engaged in the activity every student was.

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At the end of the lesson, students got time to share their drawings and their observations on the board. I loved watching how excited they were to share their thoughts and their artistic abilities with the class.  

Fast forward to my Monday-morning reality: after a fleeting stint with a utopian 7th grade classroom, I am re-immersing myself in my intimidating high school classroom.  However, I have gained a new perspective, and have developed new motivation to share how much I love science with my students.

High school biology class should not be about fulfilling science standards or preparing students for standardized tests; it should be about exploring current scientific research and learning about the natural environment around us.  I believe my time spent as an education intern at Hawk Mountain opened my eyes to this style of teaching.  I plan to continue tackling the teaching challenges I am faced with daily with this in mind.

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Learn more about Kirsten Fuller's successful work with the creation of Hawk Mountain's new technology-interactive broadwing curriculum, using Hawk Mountain tracking data, by checking out the Teacher Feature on the New Jersey Science Teachers Association website

One-Health on the Horizon

By Rebekah Smith, Former Education Intern
Hawk Mountain Sanctuary

Hawk Mountain educator Adam Carter presenting a live raptor program at the Pottstown Public Library, featuring a red-morph eastern screech owl. 

Hawk Mountain educator Adam Carter presenting a live raptor program at the Pottstown Public Library, featuring a red-morph eastern screech owl. 

Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, known worldwide for its revolutionary work on raptor conservation, also uses living education raptors to help inspire and teach others about birds of prey. If you’ve ever wondered how important the jobs of the birds that live at Hawk Mountain Sanctuary are, the answer is as easy as watching the countenance of a young audience when one of our educators introduce our “feathered co-workers.” The majestic animals captivate pupils of all ages and provide that essential connection between the wilderness of the outdoors and our own humanity. This connection is sometimes grievously missing from the current discussions surrounding climate change and public health, and the world is in need of people who can restore it.

The education raptors at Hawk Mountain were once wild birds that were severely injured and rehabilitated at a wildlife rehab center – given a second chance at life. In most cases, wildlife rehab centers are able to release the birds after they are sufficiently functional, however, there are some cases where raptors are deemed unreleasable. This is how education raptors come to be.

The question is, who is responsible for diagnosing, treating, and prescribing medicine to the injured animals both while they are in rehabilitation or while they remain in captivity to be used for education animals? I don’t think many people realize that veterinarians specializing in exotics and wildlife are needed to help care for animals like these and others in captivity all over the world.

The truth is, veterinarians specializing in treating animals other than the traditionally domesticated are vital to conservation efforts worldwide. Not only do wildlife veterinarians work to conserve global biodiversity through the lenses of medicine and animal health, but they also help contribute positively to the one health initiative that many conservation scientists have taken. This initiative usually is defined by understanding the inextricable connection between human health and animal health which hangs in a delicate balance. The spread of disease, environmental toxicity, and even natural disasters are some examples of this connection.

Dr. Susan Pello of Mt Laurel Animal Hospital gives Hawk Mountain's red-tailed hawk a yearly checkup.

Dr. Susan Pello of Mt Laurel Animal Hospital gives Hawk Mountain's red-tailed hawk a yearly checkup.

During my time as an education intern at Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, I was able to achieve a clear vision of my future as a wildlife and exotic veterinarian. Hawk Mountain provided me with the chance to watch this career in action, and I made connections with professionals in the field that I will be able to continually draw from for the rest of my career. I had the opportunity to watch a wildlife veterinarian examine and vaccinate all four of the sanctuary’s education raptors. Hawk Mountain’s veterinarian, Dr. Susan Pello, welcomed me to her clinic again soon afterwards where I watched her diagnose and treat an eastern screech owl with a severe eye infection.

Dr. Pello and many other wildlife veterinarians work both at a traditional veterinary clinic and with potential wildlife cases. The future prospects of this career pathway is broadening as we enter an age in which humans are having increasing impact on the general environment and global biodiversity. As people realize that protecting wildlife is a social responsibility both locally and globally, veterinarians will need to step up and offer their specific medical expertise.

When I attended the Jemima Parry-Jones vulture conservation lecture in early September, I found that veterinarians with experience in raptor medicine, nutrition, and captive breeding are desperately needed globally. In Southeast Asia, vultures are commonly poisoned by diclofenac-NSAIDS given to cattle, and their populations are declining rapidly. Electrocution and collision with poerlines are other causes of injury. The ecological role of vultures in such an environment is imperatively bound to the health and wellbeing of the humans that share the land. Vultures are a natural management system for carcasses that can become vectors for disease, bacteria, and other harmful or even deadly microorganisms. As animals continue to die from the shocking changes in climate and weather on a global scale, the ecological need for vultures could potentially increase where we are instead seeing degradation in natural populations.

In captive breeding efforts, veterinarians trained to recognize the health of both the young and adults are needed in order for there to be successful results. Many of the offspring produced in the captive breeding programs suffer from vitamin deficiencies resulting in a dire need for individuals who are well-versed in raptor nutrition and health.

Lazarus from the Carbon County Environmental Education Center

Lazarus from the Carbon County Environmental Education Center

Although this branch of veterinary medicine is still in the midst of developing, it is easy to predict where its future is heading. Not only can veterinarians help animals in the field for ecological and biological research, but they can also aid in the overwhelming need for general education that we hope will create the behavioral changes necessary to minimize the negative impacts of human beings on natural populations of animals such as birds of prey.

I am a firm believer that getting the opportunity to connect with an animal face-to-face can affect your own personal daily decisions that make an environmental difference when broadened in the lens of the over-all human population. Many of the potential solutions to issues in conservation come from a pool that reaches many different bodies of expertise. We cannot simply expect our problems to be solved without the contribution of the knowledgeable and their efforts. Veterinary medicine is just one facet to the mosaic of the one-health initiative that ultimately aspires to nurture the ecological balance between humans and animals globally.

Rebekah atop South Lookout, viewing the horizon.

Rebekah atop South Lookout, viewing the horizon.

Soaring Opportunities

Kirsten birdwatching in Maricao State Forest

Kirsten birdwatching in Maricao State Forest

By Kirsten Fuller, former education intern
Hawk Mountain Sanctuary

What a whirlwind the past six months of my life have been!  When I arrived at Hawk Mountain Sanctuary back in March, I never expected that my four-month internship would end up being cut in half for what proved to be an amazing adventure.   

View of the Toro Negro mountain range, where the majority of the sharp-shinned hawk nests were located. 

View of the Toro Negro mountain range, where the majority of the sharp-shinned hawk nests were located. 

Last November, I had applied to work for the Peregrine Fund, an organization dedicated to the conservation of birds of prey.  Slated to begin in January, the project had already been in progress when I was approached with an opportunity: there was suddenly a need to hire a field technician for a study of the endangered Puerto Rican sharp-shinned hawk in the central mountain region of Puerto Rico.  I could not believe this opportunity was available to me, and I was incredibly excited to pursue it. 

Finishing up my project at Hawk Mountain, I arrived in Puerto Rico at the end of April.  We jumped right into learning about the project and catching me up on what had been going on for the first four months of the study.

Puerto Rican sharp-shinned hawks are an endangered species of forest raptor.  They perform mating displays above the forest canopy in late winter and begin building their nests and laying eggs in spring.  By the time I arrived on site, 18 nests had been located.  The original field crew on the project had put in all of the legwork of searching for pairs – including using a machete to chop through the thick Puerto Rican jungle – so by the time I got there my role was mainly observing the nests. 

Let me set the scene for a “routine” day in our lives:

Wake up and eat breakfast.  Get dressed in pants and long sleeved shirt.  Gather equipment: binoculars, notepad and pen, wristwatch, and GPS.  Hop in the jeep.  Mentally prepare for the mayhem and pandemonium of Puerto Rican drivers.  Avoid crater-sized potholes that could swallow the jeep whole.  Search through the radio stations until we heard “Despacito.”  Arrive at the parking site for a specific nest and then breathe a sigh of relief for arriving unscathed.  Upon arriving, my task was usually to hike from the jeep to one of the nests on a footpath created by one of the members of our team. 

Kirsten climbing a coconut tree.

Kirsten climbing a coconut tree.

Ah, the hikes!  Most of the hikes took about 20 minutes to reach the nest site.  Along the way, I would focus almost entirely on not falling down.  The Puerto Rican jungle was friendly, but there were a lot of things to slip on; palm fronds are like Puerto Rican skis. 

These hikes were always such an adventure, and at times they were so surreal that I felt like I was living someone else’s life.  The first hike I joined, our group got stuck in a sudden torrential downpour.  The creek we were hiking along started rapidly filling up with water, the rocks became incredibly slippery, and the spiky tree ferns were tearing my hands apart as I accidentally reached for them to maintain balance.  Yet all the while I could not stop laughing!  Although not every day would prove to be as much fun or exciting, and admittedly the thrill of the jungle would eventually wear off a bit, my first trek was an unforgettable experience.

A female Puerto Rican sharp-shinned hawk enjoying a bananaquit.

A female Puerto Rican sharp-shinned hawk enjoying a bananaquit.

Once at the nest site, our task was simple: first, identify if the female was present.  If so, examine if she was still incubating her eggs and note any unusual behaviors.  As time went on the challenge became identifying the hatch date for the eggs, and then observing the growth and development of the nestlings from afar.  I always enjoyed spending the time at the nest sites listening to the sounds of the jungle, hoping to hear a male call to signal that he had prey to deliver, and then watching the interaction between the female and the male around the nest site.  We were lucky enough to watch the nestlings grow into fledglings.  While we had nests predated by pearly-eyed thrashers and nests fail due to unknown reasons, there were still some pairs that fledged young. 

A digiscoped photo of a young sharp-shinned hawk beside the nest is Toro Negro state forest. This nest was almost entirely made out of pine needles!

A digiscoped photo of a young sharp-shinned hawk beside the nest is Toro Negro state forest. This nest was almost entirely made out of pine needles!

There was one nest that looked structurally pathetic.  It was made almost entirely out of pine needles, and we were certain it would not last long enough for the young to leave the nest.  However, to our surprise, the pair ended up fledging two young!  These kinds of triumphs were so exciting to witness.

I am certainly happy to be home after such an adventure and to resume my normal schedule, but there is still a part of me that would love to be back in Puerto Rico climbing a coconut tree, struggling to order a burrito with my poor Spanish skills, and hiking to a serene and secluded spot to enjoy what beautiful nature the jungle has to offer.  This experience reinforced my interest in studying birds of prey and has left me anxious to start my next, and hopefully just as exciting, adventure. 

Cyprus: An Island of Birds

Looking at the grifon vulture nest in the cliffs at Limassol

Looking at the grifon vulture nest in the cliffs at Limassol

By Rebekah Smith, Education Intern
Hawk Mountain Sanctuary

Driving up a dusty incline through an ancient olive tree grove, we watched as construction workers altered one of the few remaining undeveloped areas on the island of Cyprus in order to build a new road. In Cyprus, old farmlands and wild areas are scarce; however, they serve as havens for the wildlife there, including many species of passerines and raptors.

On a hot day in mid-June, we were scanning the landscape for a flash of blue amongst the green-brown leaves of the stout olive trees. The European roller (Coracias garrulous) population within Cyprus experienced a recent decline, so BirdLife Cyprus has been monitoring the population at historical nesting sites across the island. This historical nesting site was becoming a highway. In Cyprus, the farmland is actually valuable to the wildlife, because human settlement and agriculture has existed there since approximately 8,200 BC. When farmland is lost to tourism and development, it’s a loss for the wildlife, specifically for the nesting bird species of Cyprus.

Leaving the newly forming roadway and heading toward a more narrow, unofficial path, I saw my first European roller sitting on a telephone wire. The vibrant turquoise bird made our day trip across the island well worth our time. This is just one of the many projects BirdLife Cyprus has taken on to protect, study, and educate people about the wild birds of Cyprus. From the start of the decade, BirdLife Cyprus researchers conducted surveys and searched desperately for proof of the successful nesting of griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) on the island. They finally determined that there were only six to eight individuals left.

In an attempt to prevent the disappearance of the only species of vulture from the island, BirdLife Cyprus coordinated a program with Crete, Greece, in which they captured and transported 25 vultures and brought them to Cyprus to be released in hopes that the species might regain its hold on the island. Since then, they’ve been observing the griffons closely. One pair in particular has captured the attention of BirdLife Cyprus’s head research scientist Christina Ieronymidou. Nestled in the cliffs of Limassol, we watched the pair of vultures—one huddled over their clutch while the other perched close by, scanning the cliff lined shore.

Christina mentioned under her breath that the other vultures in the colony must have headed towards the center of the island for the day in search of carrion, which is not a frequently available resource on the island, as there are only seven known species of mammals nationwide. In contrast, nearly 400 species of birds have been recorded on the island of Cyprus.

The disregard for the ecological importance of birds on the island is a cultural remnant that’s been passed down through generations. In the past, the passerines that migrate through Cyprus along with those that are natives, were a valuable source of protein when no other food was available to the inhabitants. Generations later, they are no longer a necessity for survival but rather a delicacy. During the spring and fall migrations, poachers set up mist nets and lime sticks to capture thousands of unsuspecting birds, even using call recordings to attract them. If the bird species caught is not of culinary interest, they are still killed and discarded.

This 15 million Euro, illegal operation is the source of BirdLife Cyprus’s biggest struggles. Their part in the scheme is mostly lobbying for the passing of bills that would protect the animals, although new legislations could call for decreased fines for poachers and the ability to bring already cooked birds to restaurants, making the illegal birds harder to identify. Pictures leaked of a politician partaking in a passerine dish suggest that authorities may also be involved in support of bird poaching. BirdLife Cyprus is one of the only voices on the island moving against these new legislations and attempting to protect the 150 million migrating birds that pass through the country during each round of migration.

BirdLife Cyprus claims the role of wildlife advocate for the entire island. BirdLife Cyprus works to educate the community, lobby for legislations in favor of wildlife, work closely with the Game and Fauna service on the island, and even sometimes rescue abandoned chicks.

Although BirdLife Cyprus is not a rehabilitation facility, they constantly receive phone calls about abandoned and injured birds. In most cases the birds have to be euthanized by a small animal veterinarian, as there are no exotic veterinarians that know how to treat injured birds on the island. In some cases though, such as the common swift chick (Apus apus) that was delivered to their doorstep, the birds are lucky enough to get a second chance.

feeding the baby swift 1.jpg

Before leaving the office of BirdLife Cyprus, I watched their Development Officer,Elena Markitani, crush the heads of some fresh mealworms and beetles purchased at a local pet store by myself and the assistant researcher Yiannis Christodoulides on the way back from the roller surveys. She gathered them in a pair of tweezers and used her thumb to open the fragile beak of the baby swift. She was trying to force-feed the chick who had suddenly decided it wanted to refuse food—a sign of being ready to leave the nest, despite the fact that it was largely underweight and could not yet fly. I later learned that the baby swift survived it’s last few days of shoebox rehab and was released, hopefully with a brighter future, thanks to BirdLife Cyprus and all they are doing to help the island birds.

As I return to Hawk Mountain Sanctuary for the remainder of my summer education internship, I feel encouraged by the enthusiasm we share with BirdLife Cyprus concerning the protection of wildlife, though the ecosystems in Pennsylvania and Cyprus are in stark contrast. Looking back at the history of Hawk Mountain, I see that BirdLife Cyprus is in a similar position to our founders. Humans are driven to hunt birds all over the world, however it is also our responsibility to make sure that there remains a balance in the populations that we impact. It will take a group effort to reduce the negative impacts that humans have had on wildlife, and it’s good to know that we have allies, even on the other side of the world.

Bridging the Gap of Research and Education

By Kirsten Fuller, Education Intern
Hawk Mountain Sanctuary

Hawk Mountain Sanctuary is a dynamic organization that uses educational programming in conjunction with scientific research to promote raptor conservation.  As an education intern at the Sanctuary, I am proud to have completed a project that bridges the gap between these two distinct areas.  Using my credentials in biology and education, and with guidance and support from various scientists and educators, I created a curriculum for high school students, which highlights scientific data collected by the Broad-winged Hawk Project at Hawk Mountain Sanctuary.    

Kirsten with her Broadwing Curriculum, right before presenting it to the Hawk Mountain staff.

Kirsten with her Broadwing Curriculum, right before presenting it to the Hawk Mountain staff.

During my time as an intern at Hawk Mountain, I was also a student completing my bachelor's degree in education at Rowan University, and was enrolled in a writing intensive course structured around unit development.  This turned out to be incredibly helpful for creating the Broad-winged Hawk curriculum.  One topic heavily discussed in this course was the current reform in science education.  Modern science teachers are expected to use an inquiry approach to teaching in tandem with technology in order to inform students about the nature of how science is conducted and how scientific discoveries have developed over time.  A lot of the elements I learned from this course I was able to apply to the development of the curriculum.  This made sure the curriculum is applicable in high school classrooms using these modern teaching approaches. 

The curriculum is focused on a Broad-winged Hawk caught in New Ringgold, PA named Abbo.  She was fitted with a satellite-tracking device in July of 2014, and was released to make her migration south.  Broad-winged Hawks are known for making long migrations, on average between 8,000 and 10,000 km, from their breeding grounds in Eastern forests to wintering grounds in South America.  Abbo migrated from her nesting site in Pennsylvania all the way to Brazil, and then back to Pennsylvania, where she chose a nest that was less than 30 km from her nest the year before.  Points accumulated by satellites were collected in a database and then easily displayed on Google Earth Pro for visualization.  This is the technology that students and teachers will use to complete activities in the curriculum.

Kirsten's Broad-winged Hawk Curriculum for teachers, along with accompanying worksheets. 

Kirsten's Broad-winged Hawk Curriculum for teachers, along with accompanying worksheets. 

In the curriculum, students explore the complete ecological profile of Abbo, the Broad-winged Hawk.  Through a series of questions and guided instructions, students analyze and compare the ecology of the nesting grounds in Pennsylvania and the wintering grounds in Brazil, explore the migratory route taken by Abbo, and think critically about the conservation and preservation issues involved with this long-distance migrant.  Content in the curriculum is applicable to many national and Pennsylvania State Standards for high school science education. 

One aspect of the curriculum that I found really important was informing students of the way ecological research is conducted.  I wanted students to understand how data about a species can be collected, and then how that data can be used to determine factors about that population.  This is how we can begin to bridge the gap between research and education;  by incorporating real-life scientific studies into traditional high school curricula, educators are able to hopefully inspire the next generation of biologists.  I plan on using these techniques when I am a student teacher next fall. 

Upon accepting the education intern position at Hawk Mountain, I was nervous about the challenges that I would encounter in my attempt to translate Broadwing migration data into an activity that is relevant in high school science classrooms.  I am very excited to see it successfully implemented in the near future.

I don’t have a photo with all of the people who helped me complete this project, however seen with me to the left are Wouter Vansteelant and Zoey Greenberg, who both made my experience at Hawk Mountain fun and memorable. I am so thankful for the opportunity to spend time working for Hawk Mountain, and for all of the encouraging and knowledgeable people that helped me complete this project. 

* This curricula with another on the black vulture was created with support from the Pennsylvania Wild Resources Conservation Program and other donors.